SpringSecurity + JWT,从入门到精通!

链接:22j.co/bBbq

权限系统躲不开的概念,在Shiro和Spring Security之间,你一般选啥?在前后端分离的项目中,你知道怎么Spring security整合JWT么,来看看这篇文章哈!

思维导图如下:

RBAC 全称为基于角色的权限控制,本段将会从什么是 RBAC,模型分类,什么是权限,用户组的使用,实例分析等几个方面阐述 RBAC

思维导图

绘制思维导图如下

什么是 RBAC

RBAC 全称为用户角色权限控制,通过角色关联用户,角色关联权限,这种方式,间阶的赋予用户的权限,如下图所示

对于通常的系统而言,存在多个用户具有相同的权限,在分配的时候,要为指定的用户分配相关的权限,修改的时候也要依次的对这几个用户的权限进行修改,有了角色这个权限,在修改权限的时候,只需要对角色进行修改,就可以实现相关的权限的修改。这样做增加了效率,减少了权限漏洞的发生。

模型分类

对于 RBAC 模型来说,分为以下几个模型 分别是 RBAC0,RBAC1,RBAC2,RBAC3,这四个模型,这段将会依次介绍这四个模型,其中最常用的模型有 RBAC0.

RBAC0

RBAC0 是最简单的 RBAC 模型,这里面包含了两种。

用户和角色是多对一的关系,即一个用户只充当一种角色,一个角色可以有多个角色的担当。
用户和角色是多对多的关系,即,一个用户可以同时充当多个角色,一个角色可以有多个用户。
此系统功能单一,人员较少,这里举个栗子,张三既是行政,也负责财务,此时张三就有俩个权限,分别是行政权限,和财务权限两个部分。

RBAC1

相对于 RBAC0 模型来说,增加了子角色,引入了继承的概念。

RBAC2 模型

这里 RBAC2 模型,在 RBAC0 模型的基础上,增加了一些功能,以及限制

角色互斥

即,同一个用户不能拥有两个互斥的角色,举个例子,在财务系统中,一个用户不能拥有会计员和审计这两种角色。

基数约束

即,用一个角色,所拥有的成员是固定的,例如对于 CEO 这种角色,同一个角色,也只能有一个用户。

先决条件

即,对于该角色来说,如果想要获得更高的角色,需要先获取低一级别的角色。举个栗子,对于副总经理和经理这两个权限来说,需要先有副总经理权限,才能拥有经理权限,其中副总经理权限是经理权限的先决条件。

运行时互斥

即,一个用户可以拥有两个角色,但是这俩个角色不能同时使用,需要切换角色才能进入另外一个角色。举个栗子,对于总经理和专员这两个角色,系统只能在一段时间,拥有其一个角色,不能同时对这两种角色进行操作。

RBAC3 模型

即,RBAC1,RBAC2,两者模型全部累计,称为统一模型。

什么是权限

权限是资源的集合,这里的资源指的是软件中的所有的内容,即,对页面的操作权限,对页面的访问权限,对数据的增删查改的权限。举个栗子。对于下图中的系统而言,

拥有,计划管理,客户管理,合同管理,出入库通知单管理,粮食安全追溯,粮食统计查询,设备管理这几个页面,对这几个页面的访问,以及是否能够访问到菜单,都属于权限。

用户组的使用

对于用户组来说,是把众多的用户划分为一组,进行批量授予角色,即,批量授予权限。举个栗子,对于部门来说,一个部门拥有一万多个员工,这些员工都拥有相同的角色,如果没有用户组,可能需要一个个的授予相关的角色,在拥有了用户组以后,只需要,把这些用户全部划分为一组,然后对该组设置授予角色,就等同于对这些用户授予角色。

优点:减少工作量,便于理解,增加多级管理,等。

首先添加依赖

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-security</artifactId>
</dependency>

然后添加相关的访问接口

package com.example.demo.web;

import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

@RestController
@RequestMapping("/test")
public class Test {
    @RequestMapping("/test")
    public String test(){
        return "test";
    }
}

最后启动项目,在日志中查看相关的密码

访问接口,可以看到相关的登录界面

输入用户名和相关的密码

用户名:user
密码 984cccf2-ba82-468e-a404-7d32123d0f9c

登录成功

增加用户名和密码

在配置文件中,书写相关的登录和密码

spring:
  security:
    user:
      name: ming
      password: 123456
      roles: admin
      

在登录页面,输入用户名和密码,即可正常登录

基于内存的认证

需要自定义类继承 WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter 代码如下

package com.example.demo.config;

import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.authentication.builders.AuthenticationManagerBuilder;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.configuration.WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter;
import org.springframework.security.crypto.password.NoOpPasswordEncoder;
import org.springframework.security.crypto.password.PasswordEncoder;


@Configuration
public class MyWebSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    @Bean
    PasswordEncoder passwordEncoder(){
        return NoOpPasswordEncoder.getInstance();
    }

    @Override
    protected void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder auth) throws Exception {
        auth.inMemoryAuthentication()
                .withUser("admin").password("123").roles("admin");
    }
}

即,配置的用户名为 admin,密码为 123,角色为 admin

HttpSecurity

这里对一些方法进行拦截

package com.ming.demo.interceptor;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.http.HttpMethod;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.authentication.builders.AuthenticationManagerBuilder;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.method.configuration.EnableGlobalMethodSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.builders.HttpSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.configuration.EnableWebSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.configuration.WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter;
import org.springframework.security.crypto.bcrypt.BCryptPasswordEncoder;
import org.springframework.security.crypto.password.PasswordEncoder;
import org.springframework.security.web.authentication.rememberme.TokenBasedRememberMeServices;

@Configuration
@EnableWebSecurity
public class SecurityConfig  extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    
    @Override
    public void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder auth) throws Exception {
        auth.inMemoryAuthentication()
                .withUser("itguang").password("123456").roles("USER").and()
                .withUser("admin").password("{noop}" + "123456").roles("ADMIN");
    }





    
    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http.authorizeRequests()
                .anyRequest().permitAll()
                .and()
                .formLogin()
                .permitAll()
                .and()
                .logout()
                .permitAll();
    }


}


即,这里完成了对所有的方法访问的拦截。

这是一个小 demo,目的,登录以后返回 jwt 生成的 token

导入依赖

添加 web 依赖

导入 JWT 和 Security 依赖

 
        <dependency>
            <groupId>io.jsonwebtoken</groupId>
            <artifactId>jjwt</artifactId>
            <version>0.9.1</version>
        </dependency>
        
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-security</artifactId>
            <version>2.3.1.RELEASE</version>
        </dependency>

创建一个 JwtUser 实现 UserDetails

创建 一个相关的 JavaBean

package com.example.demo;

import org.springframework.security.core.GrantedAuthority;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetails;

import java.util.Collection;

public class JwtUser implements UserDetails {
    private String username;
    private String password;
    private Integer state;
    private Collection<? extends GrantedAuthority> authorities;
    public JwtUser(){

    }

    public JwtUser(String username, String password, Integer state,  Collection<? extends GrantedAuthority> authorities){
        this.username = username;
        this.password = password;
        this.state = state;
        this.authorities = authorities;
    }

    @Override
    public Collection<? extends GrantedAuthority> getAuthorities() {
        return authorities;
    }

    @Override
    public String getPassword() {
        return this.password;
    }

    @Override
    public String getUsername() {
        return this.username;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isAccountNonExpired() {
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isAccountNonLocked() {
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isCredentialsNonExpired() {
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isEnabled() {
        return true;
    }
}

编写工具类生成令牌

编写工具类,用来生成 token,以及刷新 token,以及验证 token。

package com.example.demo;

import io.jsonwebtoken.Claims;
import io.jsonwebtoken.Jwts;
import io.jsonwebtoken.SignatureAlgorithm;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetails;

import java.io.Serializable;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

public class JwtTokenUtil implements Serializable {
    private String secret;
    private Long expiration;
    private String header;

    private String generateToken(Map<String, Object> claims) {
        Date expirationDate = new Date(System.currentTimeMillis() + expiration);
        return Jwts.builder().setClaims(claims).setExpiration(expirationDate).signWith(SignatureAlgorithm.HS512, secret).compact();
    }

    private Claims getClaimsFromToken(String token) {
        Claims claims;
        try {
            claims = Jwts.parser().setSigningKey(secret).parseClaimsJws(token).getBody();

        } catch (Exception e) {
            claims = null;
        }
        return claims;
    }

    public String generateToken(UserDetails userDetails) {
        Map<String, Object> claims = new HashMap<>(2);
        claims.put("sub", userDetails.getUsername());
        claims.put("created", new Date());
        return generateToken(claims);

    }

    public String getUsernameFromToken(String token) {
        String username;
        try {
            Claims claims = getClaimsFromToken(token);
            username = claims.getSubject();

        } catch (Exception e) {
            username = null;

        }
        return username;

    }

    public Boolean isTokenExpired(String token) {
        try {
            Claims claims = getClaimsFromToken(token);
            Date expiration = claims.getExpiration();
            return expiration.before(new Date());
        } catch (Exception e) {
            return false;
        }
    }

    public String refreshToken(String token) {
        String refreshedToken;
        try {
            Claims claims = getClaimsFromToken(token);
            claims.put("created", new Date());
            refreshedToken = generateToken(claims);

        } catch (Exception e) {
            refreshedToken = null;

        }
        return refreshedToken;
    }

    public Boolean validateToken(String token, UserDetails userDetails) {
        JwtUser user = (JwtUser) userDetails;
        String username = getUsernameFromToken(token);
        return (username.equals(user.getUsername()) && !isTokenExpired(token));

    }

}

编写拦截器

编写 Filter 用来检测 JWT

package com.example.demo;

import org.apache.commons.lang.StringUtils;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.security.authentication.UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken;
import org.springframework.security.core.context.SecurityContextHolder;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetails;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetailsService;
import org.springframework.security.web.authentication.WebAuthenticationDetailsSource;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;
import org.springframework.web.filter.OncePerRequestFilter;

import javax.servlet.FilterChain;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;
import java.io.IOException;

@Component
public class JwtAuthenticationTokenFilter  extends OncePerRequestFilter {
    @Autowired
    private UserDetailsService userDetailsService;
    @Autowired
    private JwtTokenUtil jwtTokenUtil;


    @Override
    protected void doFilterInternal(HttpServletRequest httpServletRequest, HttpServletResponse httpServletResponse, FilterChain filterChain) throws ServletException, IOException {
        String authHeader = httpServletRequest.getHeader(jwtTokenUtil.getHeader());
        if (authHeader != null && StringUtils.isNotEmpty(authHeader)) {
            String username = jwtTokenUtil.getUsernameFromToken(authHeader);
            if (username != null && SecurityContextHolder.getContext().getAuthentication() == null) {
                UserDetails userDetails = this.userDetailsService.loadUserByUsername(username);
                if (jwtTokenUtil.validateToken(authHeader, userDetails)) {
                    UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken authentication  =
                    new UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(userDetails,null,userDetails.getAuthorities());
                    authentication.setDetails(new WebAuthenticationDetailsSource().buildDetails(httpServletRequest));
                    SecurityContextHolder.getContext().setAuthentication(authentication);

                }
            }
        }
        filterChain.doFilter(httpServletRequest, httpServletResponse);

    }
}

编写 userDetailsService 的实现类

在上方代码中,编写 userDetailsService,类,实现其验证过程

package com.example.demo;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.security.core.authority.SimpleGrantedAuthority;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.User;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetails;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UserDetailsService;
import org.springframework.security.core.userdetails.UsernameNotFoundException;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;

import javax.management.relation.Role;
import java.util.List;

@Service
public class JwtUserDetailsServiceImpl  implements UserDetailsService {
    @Autowired
    private UserMapper userMapper;

    @Override
    public UserDetails loadUserByUsername(String s) throws UsernameNotFoundException {
        User user = userMapper.selectByUserName(s);
        if (user == null) {
            throw new UsernameNotFoundException(String.format("'%s'.这个用户不存在", s));

        }
        List<SimpleGrantedAuthority> collect = user.getRoles().stream().map(Role::getRolename).map(SimpleGrantedAuthority::new).collect(Collectors.toList());
        return new JwtUser(user.getUsername(), user.getPassword(), user.getState(), collect);

    }
}

编写登录

编写登录业务的实现类 其 login 方法会返回一个 JWTUtils 的 token

@Service
public class UserServiceImpl  implements UserService {
    @Autowired
    private UserMapper userMapper;

    @Autowired
    private AuthenticationManager authenticationManager;

    @Autowired
    private UserDetailsService userDetailsService;

    @Autowired
    private JwtTokenUtil jwtTokenUtil;

    public User findByUsername(String username) {
        User user = userMapper.selectByUserName(username);
        return user;

    }

    public RetResult login(String username, String password) throws AuthenticationException {
        UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken upToken = new UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(username, password);
        final Authentication authentication = authenticationManager.authenticate(upToken);
        SecurityContextHolder.getContext().setAuthentication(authentication);
        UserDetails userDetails = userDetailsService.loadUserByUsername(username);
        return new RetResult(RetCode.SUCCESS.getCode(),jwtTokenUtil.generateToken(userDetails));

    }
}

最后配置 Config

@EnableGlobalMethodSecurity(prePostEnabled = true)
@EnableWebSecurity
public class WebSecurity extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    @Autowired
    private UserDetailsService userDetailsService;
    @Autowired
    private JwtAuthenticationTokenFilter jwtAuthenticationTokenFilter;

    @Autowired
    public void configureAuthentication(AuthenticationManagerBuilder authenticationManagerBuilder) throws Exception {
        authenticationManagerBuilder.userDetailsService(this.userDetailsService).passwordEncoder(passwordEncoder());

    }

    @Bean(name = BeanIds.AUTHENTICATION_MANAGER)

    @Override
    public AuthenticationManager authenticationManagerBean() throws Exception {
        return super.authenticationManagerBean();
    }

    @Bean
    public PasswordEncoder passwordEncoder() {
        return new BCryptPasswordEncoder();

    }

    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http.csrf().disable().sessionManagement().sessionCreationPolicy(SessionCreationPolicy.STATELESS)
                .and().authorizeRequests()
                .antMatchers(HttpMethod.OPTIONS, "/**").permitAll()
                .antMatchers("/auth/**").permitAll()
                .anyRequest().authenticated()
                .and().headers().cacheControl();


        http.addFilterBefore(jwtAuthenticationTokenFilter, UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter.class);

        ExpressionUrlAuthorizationConfigurer<HttpSecurity>.ExpressionInterceptUrlRegistry registry = http.authorizeRequests();

        registry.requestMatchers(CorsUtils::isPreFlightRequest).permitAll();

    }

    @Bean
    public CorsFilter corsFilter() {
        final UrlBasedCorsConfigurationSource urlBasedCorsConfigurationSource = new UrlBasedCorsConfigurationSource();
        final CorsConfiguration cors = new CorsConfiguration();
        cors.setAllowCredentials(true);
        cors.addAllowedOrigin("*");
        cors.addAllowedHeader("*");
        cors.addAllowedMethod("*");
        urlBasedCorsConfigurationSource.registerCorsConfiguration("/**", cors);
        return new CorsFilter(urlBasedCorsConfigurationSource);

    }
}

运行,返回 token

运行,返回结果为 token

这里配置 SpringSecurity 之 JSON 登录

这里需要重写 UsernamePasswordAnthenticationFilter 类,以及配置 SpringSecurity

重写 UsernamePasswordAnthenticationFilter

public class CustomAuthenticationFilter extends UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter {

    @Override
    public Authentication attemptAuthentication(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws AuthenticationException {

        
        if(request.getContentType().equals(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON_UTF8_VALUE)
                ||request.getContentType().equals(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON_VALUE)){

            
            ObjectMapper mapper = new ObjectMapper();
            UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken authRequest = null;
            try (InputStream is = request.getInputStream()){
                AuthenticationBean authenticationBean = mapper.readValue(is,AuthenticationBean.class);
                authRequest = new UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(
                        authenticationBean.getUsername(), authenticationBean.getPassword());
            }catch (IOException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
                authRequest = new UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(
                        "", "");
            }finally {
                setDetails(request, authRequest);
                return this.getAuthenticationManager().authenticate(authRequest);
            }
        }

        
        else {
            return super.attemptAuthentication(request, response);
        }
    }
}

配置 SecurityConfig

@Override
protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
    http
            .cors().and()
            .antMatcher("/**").authorizeRequests()
            .antMatchers("/", "/login**").permitAll()
            .anyRequest().authenticated()
            
            .and().formLogin().loginPage("/")
            .and().csrf().disable();

    
    http.addFilterAt(customAuthenticationFilter(),
    UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter.class);
}


@Bean
CustomAuthenticationFilter customAuthenticationFilter() throws Exception {
    CustomAuthenticationFilter filter = new CustomAuthenticationFilter();
    filter.setAuthenticationSuccessHandler(new SuccessHandler());
    filter.setAuthenticationFailureHandler(new FailureHandler());
    filter.setFilterProcessesUrl("/login/self");

    
    filter.setAuthenticationManager(authenticationManagerBean());
    return filter;
}


这样就完成使用 json 登录 SpringSecurity

需要在 Config 类中配置如下内容

 
    @Bean
    public BCryptPasswordEncoder passwordEncoder(){
        return new BCryptPasswordEncoder();
    }

即,使用此方法,对密码进行加密, 在业务层的时候,使用此加密的方法

@Service
@Transactional
public class UserServiceImpl implements UserService {

    @Resource
    private UserRepository userRepository;

    @Resource
    private BCryptPasswordEncoder bCryptPasswordEncoder;
    @Override
    public User add(User user) {
        user.setPassword(bCryptPasswordEncoder.encode(user.getPassword()));
        User user2 = userRepository.save(user);
        return user2;
    }
    @Override
    public ResultInfo login(User user) {
        ResultInfo resultInfo=new ResultInfo();
        User user2 = userRepository.findByName(user.getName());
        if (user2==null) {
            resultInfo.setCode("-1");
            resultInfo.setMessage("用户名不存在");
            return resultInfo;
        }

        
        if (!bCryptPasswordEncoder.matches(user.getPassword(),user2.getPassword())) {
            resultInfo.setCode("-1");
            resultInfo.setMessage("密码不正确");
            return resultInfo;
        }
        resultInfo.setMessage("登录成功");
        return resultInfo;
    }
}

即,使用 BCryptPasswordEncoder 对密码进行加密,保存数据库

这里使用数据库认证 SpringSecurity

设计数据表

这里设计数据表

着重配置 SpringConfig

@Configurable
public class WebSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {
    @Autowired
    private UserService userService;

    @Bean
    PasswordEncoder passwordEncoder(){
        return new BCryptPasswordEncoder();
    }

    @Override
    protected void configure(AuthenticationManagerBuilder auth) throws Exception {
        
        auth.userDetailsService(userService);
    }

    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http.authorizeRequests()
                .antMatchers("/admin/**").hasRole("admin")
                .anyRequest().authenticated()
                .and()
                .formLogin()
                .loginProcessingUrl("/login").permitAll()
                .and()
                .csrf().disable();
    }
}

这里着重配置 SpringConfig。

着重讲解了 RBAC 的权限配置,以及简单的使用 SpringSecurity,以及使用 SpringSecurity + JWT 完成前后端的分离,以及配置 json 登录,和密码加密方式。

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